The genetic landscape of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has been elusive. By analyzing mtDNA using the whole genome sequence (WGS) of Japanese individuals (n = 1928), we identified 2023 mtDNA variants and high-resolution haplogroups.
Frequency spectra of the haplogroups were population-specific and were heterogeneous among geographic regions within Japan. Application of machine learning methods could finely classify the subjects corresponding to the high-digit mtDNA sub-haplogroups.
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mtDNA had distinct genetic structures from that of nuclear DNA (nDNA), characterized by no distance-dependent linkage disequilibrium decay, sparse tagging of common variants, and the existence of common haplotypes spanning the entire mtDNA.
We did not detect any evidence of mtDNA-nDNA (or mtDNA copy number-nDNA) genotype associations. Together with WGS-based mtDNA variant imputation, we conducted a phenome-wide association study of 147,437 Japanese individuals with 99 clinical phenotypes.